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Thursday, December 13, 2012

Spirit of Enquiry 詢問的精神

Spirit of Enquiry

November 30, 2012


Bangalore, India

1790


There are six types of people who asks questions.

The first type of person who asks questions is one who is sad or unhappy.
Unhappy people ask questions but they do not listen to the answers.
This is a fact, have you not experienced this? How many of you have experienced this in your life? (Many raise their hands)
Old people, especially when they are old and at home, suffering, they say, ‘Oh I have this problem, why has God been so unkind to me? Why this problem?'
They keep asking these questions for which they are not even expecting an answer from you. Remember?!
They simply ask questions, 'Why am I suffering. I did everything good, why this suffering for me?'
So, sad or unhappy people ask questions, but they are not expecting an answer. And if you give an answer then you are foolish.
You should keep quiet. Just smile at them. You just being with them is good enough for them.
When a death happens in a family, people keep asking questions, 'Why this happened?' And you have nothing to say. Do you have anything to say? No, there is nothing to say. So your simple presence is good enough. Do not try to answer their questions, got it?!
Also, do not be an advocate for God or make them against God.
Usually people say, 'God has been unkind to you, nature has been so unkind to you, this should not have happened', and all these things. It does not help them in any way.
So when sad and miserable people ask questions, you should simply keep quiet.

Second type of people who ask questions are those who are angry; who feel injustice has happened them. They are very angry and they ask questions.
They are not ready to listen to any answer, because when a person is angry, the mind is already closed. The intellect is not functioning. Emotion has taken over.
In that situation it is better to let them calm down and not go on answering their questions. An angry person’s questions are useless to answer.
The third type of people who ask questions are those who ask questions just to make their presence felt, they are not interested in an answer.
'I am here, do you recognize me', that is all they want to know, they are not at all interested in the answer. If you answer their question, they look somewhere else, or they may be doing something else. Because it is so compelling for them to make their presence felt they ask a question.

This is the third type of people.
If you are a school teacher you will have this experience. A college teacher has written about this, that in the college, sometimes people get up and stand just to show-off that they are intelligent and they are present in the classroom.
How many of you here have experienced this? Doesn't this happen in IIT all the time? Someone just stands up and questions.

The fourth type of people are those who think they know the answer but they just come to test whether the other guy knows the answer or not. As if to say, 'I know all the answers, but I want to test this guy, whether he knows the answer or not.'
It is useless to talk to such people.

The fifth type of people who ask questions are those who have a deep experience and they want to understand that.
'I meditated and I felt all these sensations happening. What was that? I want to know more about it. '
'When I meditated I saw light and there was this beautiful fragrance. I want to know about this. I want to understand if I am doing the technique correct. What is the meaning of this experience? '
Asking questions after having an experience, because experience and understanding has to go together.
When some people have experiences for the first time then they want to understand it and so they ask questions.

The sixth type of people who ask questions are called Jigyasu.
There is a burning desire deep in their mind to know the truth, to know the reality, and they have faith in whom they are asking the questions to, that this person knows the answer, and so they go and ask them.
You do not ask a question relating to medicine to the maid servant.
Someone is sweeping your floor and she is washing the vessels in your home, you wouldn’t go ask her what medicine should you take because you know that she may not know.
When you are sick, you will go to a doctor and ask him because you know that he knows.

So when you have confidence that the person knows the answer, and you want to ask your question to that person, then you are ready to take the answer.
A situation in which - you do not know, you want to know and you are sure that the person whom you want to put the question to knows the answer.
When these three factors are there, then there is Jigyasa - The real spirit of enquiry.
You do not ask a sweeper how to go to the airport.
You do not go to a gardener and ask the gardener how to drive a car, or how to administer a medicine. You know that they will not know because you have an idea of what they know.
When you go to a gardener and ask them a question in their field, then you know they know the answer.
So, knowing that this person knows the answer, and I do not know the answer and then asking
- that is a genuine seeker.
This is the sixth type of people who ask questions.
All our Shastras, all our scriptures in India have begun with a question.
Which type of question? Not the first type, nor the second, nor the third, nor the fourth, nor the fifth, but the sixth type of question - I do not know, I want to know, and this person knows so I ask him the question.
All the knowledge from the scriptures have started with a genuine spirit of enquiry, through questions.

Once somebody was standing in a railway station and kept asking the ticket collector about every train that came and went. The ticket collector answered him three to four times and finally he got so tired that he said, ‘Come on gentleman, just tell me where you want to go.' The man said, ‘Nowhere , I just want to cross over to the other side.'
So if you just have to cross over to the other side, it is futile for you to keep asking questions which are irrelevant. This is what most people do, ask irrelevant things just to spend time. So, whatever I have said, ponder over it. Think about it again and again!

Once in Canada, during a satsang, I said, '2+1=0'.
There was debate over this for two hours. There were all the top professors from places like IIT. It was such fun for everyone - how can Gurudev say this, 2+1=0.
See, it also depends upon who says it. If a child says, '2+1=0', then we can say it is wrong. But if a great professor says, '2+1=0', then we cannot say, 'No, this is not correct.' You have to ponder over it. You need to think about it. There could be some secret behind it and that is why he has said it. He is not a fool to just say it like that.
On the surface when you look at it, you might feel that this is impossible, but there is some possibility in every impossibility. It is when you sit and ponder that many new possibilities open up.


So that day so much of knowledge opened up by just thinking how 2+1=0.
With this we had one complete tape. It was hilarious, everyone was laughing throughout the whole two and a half hours.
It depends on who is giving the knowledge, who is saying it.
If a very intelligent person says, '2+1=0', you cannot dismiss it. You have to go into it, and contemplate. This is what is called Koan (a puzzling, often paradoxical statement or story, used in Zen Buddhism as an aid to meditation and a means of gaining spiritual awakening.) In Hindi it is called Paheli (riddle).


See, life is like a puzzle and many times knowledge also comes to us in the form of a puzzle. Using the sharpness of the intellect we need to contemplate and chew on the knowledge to understand the secrets hidden inside; the meaning hidden inside.
In India, there have been many great intellectual teachers like that, and these teachers used to convey everything in the form of puzzles to the very intelligent ones. So for them to receive the knowledge, they had to first think and solve the puzzle. Then they would receive the knowledge.
You must have heard about Vikramaditya and Betal; there are so many puzzles like that in our country which are very beneficial for children. It sharpens their intellect, and their thinking faculty also becomes very sharp.

Even Lord Krishna, after giving all the knowledge to Arjuna, he said, 'I have said all that I needed to say, now you think over it. Go deep into it, contemplate and if you think it is right, then you accept it.' So after listening, you need to contemplate. Just listening is not enough, digesting it is also important. Think over it again and again. Understand the meaning behind the meaning. And without contemplating over it, you should neither accept it nor reject it. If you reject it, then that is wrong, and if you just accept it and sit, that is also wrong. You have to listen, contemplate and then accept. Then the knowledge will be established inside you.If you accept it immediately after you listen, then there is no chance to ponder over it. And if you immediately reject ii saying, 'No, this is wrong', then also there is no contemplation. So first listen, accept and then contemplate over it. And after contemplating over it, accept it.



詢問的精神


有六種人會發問問題.

第一種發問問題的人是那些傷心或不快樂的人。不快樂的人發問問題,但是他們並不會去聽問題的答案。這是事實,你有經歷過嗎?多少人有經歷過?(很多人舉手)。就說老人家好了,當他們老了,呆在家裡,很痛苦,他們說『噢我有這個問題,為什麼神要這樣對我?為什麼會有這樣的問題?』他們一直重複的問這些問題而他們也沒有要從你這兒得到答案。你還記得嗎?他們只是隨意的發問問題『為什麼我受苦。我做了那麼多善事,為什麼我還是受苦?』

所以當傷心或不快樂的人發問問題的時候,他們是沒有期望得到答案的。如果你給他們答案,那你就是傻瓜。你只需要保持沉默就好。對他們微笑就好。你和他們在一起就已經是很好了。 當家裡有人死亡的時候,人們會不停的問『為什麼這會發生?』而你卻沒有什麼可以答上的。你有什麼可以回答的嗎?不,沒有什麼可以說的。你的出席就是最好的了。不要嘗試去回答他們的問題,知道嗎?而且你也別去鼓吹神或讓人們對抗祂。通常人們會說『神虧待了你,大自然虧待了你,這一切都是不應該發生』或其它的。這些都不會幫助到他們。所以當那些傷心和痛苦的人問問題的時候,你只需要保持沉默就好。


第二種人發問問題的人是憤怒的人;那些覺得不公平的事情發生在他們身上的人。他們很憤怒所以他們發問問題。他們並沒有準備好要去聽取任何的答案,因為當一個人在生氣的時候,他的心智是緊閉的。他的理智並沒有完全發揮作用。情緒接管了一切。這種情況下不要去回答他們的問題,而是讓他們冷靜下來。去回答一個憤怒的人的問題是枉然的。

第三種發問問題的人是那些為了讓別人發現他們的存在的人,他們對任何的答案都沒有興趣。『我在這裡,你認得我嗎?』這是他們所想要知道的,他們對任何的答案都毫無興趣。就算你回答他們的問題,他們會東張西望,或是做些別的事情。因為發問問題讓他們引起人們的注意。這就是第三種人。如果你是學校的教師你就會有這種經驗。一個學院的教師寫到這些,他說在學院裡,有些時候一些人站起來只為了表現自己的聰明和他們的存在。你們當中有人經歷過這些嗎?這些都常在IIT(Indian Institutes of Technology印度理工學院)發生,對嗎?有些人只是純粹站起來發問些問題而已。


第四種人是那些他們以為他們已經知道答案的,但是他們只是要測試對方是不是知道那個答案。換句話是說『我知道答案,但是我要測試這個人,看他知不知道。』和這樣的人講話也是徒勞無功的。

第五種發問問題的人是那些有著很深的體驗,並想要更了解這一點的人。『我在靜心的時候有一些感受。我要知道那是什麼。』,『當我在靜心的時候我看到光和聞到一 些香味。我想要知道那是什麼。我要知道我是不是用對技巧。這些體驗代表著什麼?』。因為有一些體驗所以才發問問題,因為體驗和理解是並行的。當一些人有著第一次的體驗的時候,他們想要了解更多所以他們發問問題。

第六種發問問題的人叫做Jigyasu。在他們內心深處有股強烈的慾望要去知道真理,去知道事情的真相的,也對他們所問的對象抱有信念,他們相信這個人是知道答案的,所以他們就問了這個人他們所要知道的問題。你不會去問女傭一些關於醫藥的問題。你不會去問一個在你家裡掃地洗瓷器的人你應該要吃什麼藥,因為你知道她也許不會。當你生病的時候,你去問醫生你應該吃些什麼藥,因為你知道醫生會知道的。

所以當你對你所要問問題的人有信心,你相信他是知道答案,而你要問他你所想要問的問題,那麼你就是已經準備好要知道這個答案了。這是一個——你不知道,你想要知道,而你認定你所要問的這個人會知道答案——的一個處境。如果這三個因素都存在的話,Jigyasa——真正要詢問的精神——就存在。

你不會問一個清道夫要如何去機場。你不會去問一個園丁要如何駕駛車輛,或是要如何管理一台器械。你知道他們不會知道答案,因為你有概念他們所知道的哪一些方面的專長。如果你去問一個園丁關於花園的問題,那你知道他們會知道那些答案。所以——知道這個人知道答案,而我不知道答案,然後你問這個問題——這就是真正的尋找者。這就是第六種發問問題的人。
我們所有的經典,在印度所有的經文都是以一個問題開始的。什麼樣的問題呢?不是第一種,也不是第二或是第三種,也不是第四或是第五種,而是第六種問題——我不知道,我想要知道,而這個人知道,所以我問他這個問題。所有在經文裡的知識都始於一個透過問題的詢問精神而開始的。

有一回有個人在火車站裡不停的問收票員關於來來往往的火車去向。收票員回答了他三四次後終於不耐煩的問到『這位先生,不然你就直接告訴我你要去哪裡好了』。而男士說『我沒有要去哪裡啊,我只是要到對面去而已。』所以如果你只是要到對面去,而你一直問些不相關的問題,那是沒有用的。這是多數人在做的事情,問些不相關的問題只為了打發時間。所以我所說的一切,認真的去思考。一次又一次的去重覆思考它。

有次在加拿大,在唱場的時候我就說道『2 + 1 = 0』。結果就因為這個話題大家辯論了兩個小時。在場的有些是頂尖的教授如那些從IIT(Indian Institutes of Technology印度理工學院)來的。大家都覺得很有趣——為什麼古儒吉會說『2 + 1 = 0』。所以這也取決於是誰所說的東西。如果是一個小孩子說『2 + 1 = 0』,我們就會說這是錯的。但是如果是個偉大的教授說『2 + 1 = 0』,那我們就不能說這是錯的。你需要去思考。你需要去想這件事。他這麼說的背後一定有什麼原因。他不是傻子,不會隨意這麼說的。表面上看來,你會覺得這是不可能的,但是在不可能裡面是有些可能性的。當你坐下來思考的時候,新的可能性就會湧現了。所以那一天很多的知識就因為對『2 + 1 = 0』的思考而打開了。關於這個辯論我們有套完整的卡帶。這個很有趣,大家在這兩個小時半裡都在開懷大笑。這都取決於是誰在給予這些知識,誰所說出來的。如果一個有智慧的人說『2 + 1 = 0』,你不能去忽視它。你必須要深入的去沉思。這叫做Koan(令人百思其解,通常是詭論或是故事,在禪宗裡促進靜坐和靈性醒覺)。在印度這稱為Paheli(謎語)。


生命就像拼圖,而很多時候知識也是以拼圖的模式出現。我們需要運用敏銳的理智去沉思和咀嚼知識裡面的秘密;這裡面所深藏的意義。在印度有很多大智慧的老師,這些老師都把知識以拼圖的模式傳達給那些高知識分子。這讓他們增加智慧。他們要得到知識就必須要去思考和解除謎團。然後才會得到那份知識。你也許聽過VikramadityaBetal (印度的童話故事);我們的國家有很多這些對孩子有益的故事。增加他們的智力,讓他們的思考能力更敏銳。


當克里希納(Lord Krishna)給了阿爾諸那(Arjuna)所有的知識後,他說道『該說的我都已經說了,現在你需要去思考。深入的去沉思,如果你覺得那是對的,你就接受它吧。』所以聽取知識過後,你需要去沉思。單單聽是不夠的,去消化所聽到的也是很重要。一而再,再而三的去思考。去理解那意義背後的意義。在沒有經過思考之前,你不應該接受或拒絕那個知識。如果你拒絕了,這是錯誤的;如果你只是輕易的接受,這也是錯誤的。你必須要去聽,後兒沉思,然後才接受。沉思過後,就接受它。如果你在聽後直接就接受它,那就沒有去思考的機會。如果你即刻就拒絕它說道『不,這是錯的!』,這也是沒有經過沉思的。所以首先你去聽取,然後去思考,最後才接受它。

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