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Tuesday, December 11, 2012

The four Pillars of Knowledge 四个知识的支柱

The four Pillars of Knowledge
You have heard “Everything is God. There is nothing outside of God.”. Then why is this not your experience? This is a fundamental question. Why is God not an experiential reality for you?

To reach the self, there are four major tools, the four Pillars of Knowledge:

The first one is called Viveka. Viveka is grossly translated as discrimination, but it’s not just discrimination. Viveka is the understanding or observation that everything is changing. Whatever you consider as stationary or solid is neither stationary nor solid. Everything is changing. Existence is an ever changing reality.

Our own bodies are changing. Every minute new cells are born and old cells are dying. Every time you breathe, old energy goes out and new energy comes in. Our body is a bundle of atoms and atoms are always disintegrating. Our thoughts and emotions are changing. You are not the same person you were yesterday. You cannot maintain the same degree of happiness or sadness all the time. It fluctuates. Emotions, feelings, view points are all changing.

But there is something different from all this that is not changing. The one who is observing the change is non-changing, otherwise how can one recognize the change? The reference point to recognize change has to be non-changing. Discriminating between that which is not changing, and everything else which is ever changing is “Viveka”. Understanding that everything in this world is changing would reduce 99% of the misery in this world.

The second pillar is called Vairagya. Vairagya is translated as Dispassion. Behind every misery there is hope. Hope is the fuel for miserable people. There is deep desire for some joy in the future: If I change my town, I will be happy. If I change my relationship, or my job, or my company, I will be happier. People who are single think they will be happy if they get married. Married people think they were better off when they were single. A child thinks when he/she grows up and goes to college they will happy. A college student says “Once I get a job I will be happy”. A manager says “When I become the director I will be happy” Postponing happiness sometime in the future can make you miserable right now.
Pleasure can also tire you. How long can you look at something beautiful? Eventually you will get tired of it; your eyelids will fall off. How long can you smell a beautiful fragrance? People working in the perfume factories are sick of perfumes. If you like donuts, how many can you stuff through your mouth? How much ice-cream can you enjoy? Music- how much can you hear? Touching, and being touched, how long can you enjoy? The world is full of pleasure for the five senses, but the senses have their limitations. But the mind wants endless joy. An attitude of “So what! Let it be, whatever” takes away the feverishness in you and brings you to that pillar of dispassion.

Dispassion is NOT apathy! Often we think dispassion means being unenthusiastic, depressed and not interested in anything. This is not dispassion! Dispassion is lack of feverishness. Dispassion is full of activity and enthusiasm, yet devoid of feverishness. Dispassion towards the enjoyments of the five sense or the spiritual enjoyment, towards the seen and the unseen, the outer world or the inner world, is the second pillar of knowledge.

The third pillar consists of the Six Wealths. The Vedas have mentioned six types of Wealths: Shama, Dama, Uparati, Titiksha, Shraddha, and Samadhana.

The first wealth is Shama. Shama is tranquility of the mind. When the mind wants to do too many things, it gets completely scattered. When shama is established, you are able to focus and your mind is more alert. When dispassion is firmly established, shama automatically starts happening, the mind is tranquil.

The second wealth is Dama. Dama means control over senses, the ability to have a say over one’s senses. Many times you don’t want to say something, yet you do. Many times you don’t want to look at something, yet you look anyways. You decided you are full and you will not eat anymore. Then some nice food is served, and it smells so good that you go ahead and take a bite, and another. Soon, to your surprise, you find that you have stuffed in more than your tummy can take. Having Dama, you are not carried away by our senses. You will say “Yes” or “No” to the senses, not the other way around.

The third wealth is Titiksha. Titiksha means endurance or forbearing. When difficult things come, forbearance allows you to go on without getting completely shaken. In life, some pleasant events happen, some unpleasant events happen. So what! None of them stay forever. Health comes and sickness comes. Moods come and go. Profits come and losses come. People come and go in life. Titiksha is not getting shaken by what happens. Of ten what is unpleasant can become pleasant later on. What you thought was very bad, later on was found to be very good for you. It made you strong. Understanding this helps not hanging on to the past and not judging events as good or bad. The ability to not get carried away by the events is Titiksha. When you play a game, winning and loosing is a part of it. The game has more value when it is a little tough. If you already knew who will win the game, you will loose interest in the game. Look at life as a game. Just turn back and look at all the difficult situations you have gone through in life. In spite of it all, you are complete today. The difficulties could not destroy you. They only made you stronger. You are more powerful than them.

The fourth wealth is Uparati. Uparati means rejoicing in your own nature, being with your nature. Often you are not with your nature, you or doing things because someone else says or does something. Often people do things for approvals from others. Being in the present moment, being the joy that you are, the ability to rejoice in anything that you do, that is Uparati. Letting go of everything, being playful is Uparati, and then taking everything seriously is also Uparati. These are completely opposite values, but taking them together, living them together, that is Uparati.

The fifth wealth is Shraddha. Shraddha means faith. Faith is needed when you have found the limit of your knowledge. You know something this far, and you don’t know anything beyond that. Your willingness to know the unknown is Shraddha, the faith. If your mind is fixed, and says “That’s it. I know it all”, that is ego. The more you know, the more will be the feeling that you don’t know. Recognition of the unknown is Shraddha. Faith in your self, faith in the Master, faith in the Divine, faith in the infinite order of things, faith in that love of infinity, is Shraddha. Observe the nature of doubt. Doubt is always about something positive. When someone says, “I love you”, you doubt asking “Really”? But when someone says, “I hate you, I am angry at you”, then you don’t doubt it, you don’t ask “Really?”.

Doubt the negative, and be confident of the positive. Without faith, it would be like someone saying, “First let me learn how to swim, then I will get into the water”. You have to get into the water to learn swimming. The entire world works on faith. For example, any system, whether a credit card system, airlines, banks, even a medical system, although there is no guarantee, there is a high probability that everything will work the way it is meant to. If there could be 100 percent probability, then there would be no need of faith. When there is less than 100 percent probability, that means the result is not knowledge, it is based on faith.

The sixth wealth is Samadhana. Samadhana means being at ease, being content. How do you feel when you are at ease? How does it feel when you are totally at ease, calm and serene? Being at ease with you, at ease with the people and situations around you, with the whole existence, is Samadhana. This is a great wealth by itself.These six wealths together form the third pillar.
The fourth pillar is called Mumukshatva. Mumukshatva is the desire for the highest, a desire for total freedom, for enlightenment, whatever you want to call it. First of all you can desire something only when you feel it is possible for you. When you think it is not possible, then you cannot even desire it. When you think enlightenment is not possible for you, then slowly you eliminate the possibility, and then the next possibility, and then the next. Mumukshatva is present when there is a deep desire for the highest, a burning desire, a longing for the Divine.

When there is a desire in someone to learn, it should come from within. Don’t think you have to attain it. Think you already have it. To some degree, to some extent, you have all the six wealths also. If you put a little more attention on them, they become stronger and more solid in you. The pillars are already there, you only have to make them stronger, build them a little higher.



第一个是Viveka。Viveka 可以大致上被译为区别心,但它也不只是区别而已。Viveka 是去明白或是观察到这一切都在改变。你所认为是固定的或是坚固的东西,往往都不是固定的,也不是坚固的。一切都在改变。一切所有存在的,只是一个一直在改变的实相。

第二个支柱是Vairagya。Vairagya 被译为客观冷静。在每个苦楚的背后都有一个希望。希望是痛苦的燃料。我们对于未来有着很深的欲望,我们希望可以得到快乐:如果我搬去别的城市我会快乐,如果我换个伴侣,或是换个工作,或是换个公司,我会比较快乐。还单身的人想像如果他们结婚了他们会比较快乐。结了婚的人却觉得单身的时候比较好。小孩子觉得长大了去了学院读书了,他们会比较快乐。学院生就说“如果我得到一份工作我会快乐”。一个经理说“等我变成董事长我就会快乐”将快乐推迟到未来会让现在的你痛苦。

无论如何你还是会对它感到厌倦的,你的眼皮会掉下来。你能闻一种香水多久?在香水工厂工作的人对香水的味道感到厌烦。如果你喜欢甜甜圈,你能够往你的嘴里塞多少个?你能享受多少的冰淇淋?音乐——你能听多少的音乐?碰触,或是被触碰,你能享受那些多久?这个世界充满着五官的享受,但是这些感官都有它们的局限的。但是我们的心智要无限的享受。“那又怎么样!随便吧!随他去吧!” 的态度能让激昂的感受离去,这就让你去到这个客观冷静的支柱里。
第三个知识的支柱是六个财富。Vedas提到了六种财富:Shama, Dama, Uparati, Titiksha, Shraddha, 和 Samadhana.

 第一种财富是Shama。Shama 是平静的心智。当心智要很多的东西的时候,它是零落疏散的。当Shama组成后,你变得可以专注,心智也变得机警敏锐。当我们有了客观冷静的态度,Shama 自然而然的会发生,心智是安宁的。

第二个财是Dama。 Dama 的意思是控制着五官感受,有能力去应对每一个感官的感受。很多时候你并不是有意要去说一些话,但是你还是说了。很多时候你并没有要去看些什么,但你还是去看了。你决定你已经吃饱了,你不要再吃了。但是当有好吃的食物送上的时候,它的味道是那么的美好,然后不自觉的你就吃了一口,接着又一口。很快的你就惊讶的发现你已经吃得太饱了。有了Dama, 你就不会被你的感官牵着走。你会对那些感官说“是”或“不是”,而不是被它们牵着走。
第三个财富是Titiksha。Titiksha 耐力或忍耐。当困难面临时,忍耐让你可以在不被困境所动摇的情况下走过。在生命里,愉快的事情发生了,不愉快的事情也发生了。那又怎么样!它们没有一个会久留的。健康来了,疾病来了。情绪来了又走了。利来了,也又走了。来到我们生命里的人,来了也走了。Titiksha 是不被这一切所动摇。十个愉快的事情在接着也会变成不愉快的。你觉得对你很坏的事情,过阵子你可能会发现它是对你有益的。它让你坚强。去理解这一点让你不再执着着过去,也不再去判断一件事情是好还是坏。那种不被任何情况所动摇的能力就是Titiksha。当你在玩一个游戏的时候,输赢是游戏的一部分。如果这个游戏有些挑战,这会让这个游戏变得比较有价值。如果你已经知道谁会在这个游戏里赢得胜利,那你对整个游戏也就失去了兴趣。把生命当成是一场游戏。只需要回过头去看一看那些在你生命里经历过的困难。无论发生了什么事,你已经都把它们完成了。那些难题都不能诋毁你。它们只会让你更坚强。你是比它们更有力量的。

第四个财富是 Uparati。 Uparati 的意思是欢庆在自己的本性里,和自己在一起。很多时候你并没有和你的本性在一起,你做的事情是因为别人说了些什么或做了些什么。通常人们做些事情是因为要得到别人的许可。活在当下,和你的喜悦在一起,无论你做些什么事情你都能欢庆在其中,这种能力就是Uparati。把一切放下,可以淘气的去面对,
第五个财富是Shraddha。 Shraddha 的意思是信念。当你发现你的知识有不足的地方时,这就是你需要信念的时候。你只知道到目前为此的事情,再深入的你就不知道了。你首先需要愿意去明白那些你所不知道的,这就是Shraddha,信念。如果你的心智已经设定了,说到“就是这样,我知道全部了”,这是小我(Ego)。你知道得越多,你就会发觉你知道的其实很少。认出这些你所不知道的就是 Shraddha。对自己的信念,对大师的信念,对神性的信念,
对一切无极限的信念,对那无极限的爱的信念, 这些都是Shraddha。去观察疑惑的本质。疑惑往往只会对正面的事情所产生。当有人对你说“我爱你”的时候,你就会怀疑到 “真的吗?” 但是如果有人告诉 你说 “我恨你,我气你” 你却不会去怀疑,你不会说 “真的吗?”。
对负面的产生怀疑,对正面的有信心。没有了信念,就像一个人会说“首先让我先学会如何游泳,然后我才跳进水里。” 你要学游泳你必须要先跳进水里呀。这个世界的运作都是在于信念。比如说,一个系统,无论是信用卡的系统,航空的,银行的,或是医疗的系统,虽然那是没有保证的,但是一切都在以一个很高的概率在操作着。如果有100%的概率,那也不需要信念了。

第六个财富是Samadhana。 Samadhana 是自在,知足的意思。当你很自在的时候你觉得怎么样?当你全然自在的时候,你感觉怎么样?很平静,很安详?自在的和你自己在一起,自在的和身边的人和环境在一起,和所有存在的在一起,这就是Samadhana。这个财富本身就是一个伟大的财务。这六个财富合在一起就组成了第三个支柱。

第四个支柱是Mumukshatva。Mumukshatva 是对那最高至上的渴望,对全然自由的渴望,对开悟的渴望,或任何你所称呼它的。首先你会去渴望一样事情,那是因为你觉得那是件有可能发生的事情。当你觉得那是不可能的时候,你就不会对它有所渴望。当你觉得你是不能开悟的,那你就会慢慢的排出那个概率,然后再排除下一个概率,然后在排除下一个。Mumukshatva 是那个对至高无上有所渴望的那个当下,像是火焰般燃烧的渴望,对神性的渴望。

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